Books and Reports

Books & Reports

The Observational Method in Civil Engineering

Authors: Alan Powderham
Anthony O’Brien
Pages: 376
Publisher: CRC Press
Publication date: September 2020
Price: US$35.99
Hardback US$80.00
ISBN: 9780367361648
Ordering: Order online
The observational method is a natural and powerful technique that maximises economy while assuring safety in the field of civil construction. Despite the recognised and agreed advantages, the method is significantly underused. The book demonstrates how the full potential of the method can overcome a wide range of concerns and constraints with chapters addressing the advantages and limitations of the method, the key role of progressive modification, the art of achieving agreement and the commercial and contractual environment.
The key features of the method are highlighted in The Observational Method in Civil Engineering through twelve case histories from major infrastructure projects that cover protection of adjacent structures including buildings and railway systems, bored and jacked tunnels, shafts and cofferdams, retaining walls, embankments, deep foundations, ground improvement and groundwater control. The case studies illustrate how the observational method can achieve more effective collaboration between the client and the design and construction teams as well as how it can enhance the ability to learn from experience to improve future practice and stimulate innovation.
The book will appeal to a range of construction professionals, including civil, structural and geotechnical engineers, contractors and owners. It will also be of interest to students and researchers.


Practical Guide to Rock Tunneling
Author: Dean Brox
Pages: 248
Publisher: CRC Press
Publication date: 21 April 2017
Price: US$139.95 (hardback)
ISBN: 9781138629981
Ordering: Order online

Published also in Spanish
Guía Práctica para Túneles en Roca
Author: Dean Brox
Publication date: November 2020
Chapters: 21
Pages: 386
Images: 127
References: 182
Advertisements: 18

Price: e-book US$25.00
Printed version: US$49.99
Order online with Amazon

Autores Editores
Price: Printed copies in
Black and white: US$25.00
Colour: US$50.00
Order online with Autores Editores
Following publication of the Practical Guide to Rock Tunneling by Dean Brox in 2017, the book is republished in Spanish. The new publication Guía Práctica para Túneles en Roca is published with several additional aspects and lessons learned case histories. The book has been produced for young professionals and constituents of the tunnel industry for civil, mining and hydroelectric projects. A portion of the proceeds from the sale of the book will be made available for a selected candidate to attend a recognized Master degree course in tunnelling at AETOS Spain, AMITOS Mexico, Politecnico de Torino, Italy, INSA/ENTPE France, Warwick University, UK, or Colorado School of Mines, USA.
La Guía Práctica para Túneles en Roca lleva al lector a través de todos los pasos críticos del diseño y construcción de túneles de roca, desde las investigaciones del sitio geotécnico hasta la supervisión de la construcción. La guía ofrece sugerencias y recomendaciones para los profesionales sobre temas especiales de pruebas de laboratorio, durabilidad de rocas y aceptación de túneles de transporte de agua sin revestimiento, sobreesfuerzos en túneles profundos y largos, evaluación de métodos de excavación en base a riesgos, estrategias contractuales e inspecciones posteriores a la construcción. Las consideraciones claves y las lecciones aprendidas de proyectos de casos seleccionados se presentan en base a la amplia experiencia internacional del autor de más de 35 años y 1500km de túneles para infraestructura civil, hidroeléctrica y minera, incluidos algunos de los proyectos más reconocidos en el mundo hasta la fecha. En lugar de revisar todas las teorías y conceptos que se pueden encontrar en otras fuentes, este libro contiene las difíciles lecciones aprendidas de la experiencia del autor en el campo de los túneles de roca, incluidos los proyectos complejos dentro de América Latina en Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, México, Panamá y Perú.
Guía Práctica para Túneles en Roca takes the reader through all the critical steps of rock tunnel design and construction, from geotechnical site investigations to construction supervision. The guide offers tips and recommendations for professionals on special topics of laboratory testing; rock durability and acceptance of unlined water conveyance tunnels; overstressing in deep and long tunnels; evaluation of risk-based excavation methods including for selection of TBMs; and contractual strategies and post-construction inspections. Key considerations and lessons learned from selected case projects are presented based on the author's international experience of more than 35 years and 1,500km of tunnels for civil, hydroelectric and mining infrastructure, including some of the most recognized projects in the world to date. Instead of reviewing all the theories and concepts that can be found in other sources, this book contains the difficult lessons learned from the author's experience in the field of rock tunnels, including complex projects in Latin America in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama and Peru.
Visit the author’s website for further details.

The Practical Guide to Rock Tunneling fills an important void in the literature for the design and construction of tunnels in rock, and takes the reader through all the critical steps of the design and construction process – from geotechnical site investigations, through to construction supervision. This new publication has been prepared as a practical road map particularly for young professionals.
The guide provides suggestions and recommendations for practitioners on the topics of laboratory testing; durability of rock and acceptance for unlined water conveyance tunnels; overstressing of deep and long tunnels; risk-based evaluation of excavation methods; contract strategies; and post-construction inspections.
Key considerations and lessons learned from selected case projects are presented based on the author’s extensive international experience of more than 30 years and 1,200km of tunneling for civil, hydropower, and mining infrastructure – including some of the most recognized projects in the world to date.
Instead of revisiting all theory and concepts that can be found in other sources, this book contains the hard-learned lessons from the author’s own practical experience in the field of rock tunneling.
Dean Brox graduated in 1985 from the Geological Engineering Program of the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada, and obtained his MSc in Engineering Rock Mechanics with Distinction from Imperial College, London, in 1990, before starting his career in underground mining rock mechanics in South Africa and then moving into tunneling for civil engineering infrastructure projects around the world including the Lesotho Highlands Water Project, the Hong Kong Airport Core Projects, and the Gotthard Base Rail Tunnel in Switzerland. Brox has extensive experience with tunnels for hydropower projects and his areas of particular expertise include high speed drill+blast excavations, long and deep TBM excavated tunnels, overstressing of deep or weak rock tunnels, asset performance of hydropower tunnels and TBM applicability assessments for mining projects. He practices as an independent consulting engineer and lives in Vancouver, Canada.

See reviews below


I enjoyed this new book by Dean as it reminded me of what l had forgotten and discussed what has changed in rock tunnelling. An engaging summary of the current practice of planning, design, management and construction in rock tunnelling and a good basis for BSc/MSc students and beginners learning the art. Well laid out, a clear format with useful references and case studies—and excellent pictures. Succinct and to the point.

Of particular note are the chapters on rock characterisation, risk & mitigation and lessons learned (chapters 5, 12 &19). Essential points are covered, well explained and uncomplicated. Chapter 15 on contract strategy and implementation is a good summary for those starting a career in tunnelling, putting into context the commercial framework for procuring construction in rock tunnelling.

The book gives useful references and examples of case histories. If l was just beginning a career in tunnelling I would be delighted to have the benefit of Dean’s helicopter view of an industry that he knows well and understands.

Martin Knights FREng, Former President of the International Tunnelling Association & Independent Consulting Engineer May 2017

Practical Guide to Rock Tunnelling is exactly that, a useful tool and guide for practitioners in the tunnel business. This book provides insight into nearly every subject and covers all steps of a rock tunnel project from planning through construction and operations and inspection. It is a valuable reference for owners/clients, as it includes discussion of subjects such as: project planning, costing, scheduling, and risk assessment, never covered in classic technical books. Excellent photographs and graphics throughout, which clearly illustrate the author’s message from practical experience on the multitude of subjects.

The book gives guidance on the current up-to-date state-of-the-practice in rock tunnelling and discusses innovations of the last decade from televiewer logging of bore holes, LiDAR aerial surveys for geological fault mapping, proper photography of rock core, to the modern use of fiber reinforcement in pre-cast concrete segments. New technical evaluation and graphical methods are presented for overstressing and squeezing of deep tunnels as part of constructability assessments. A good discussion, illustrated with photographs, of the importance of rock durability is provided. The acceptability of unlined tunnels for water conveyance and criteria to consider are discussed.

Based on 30 years of practical experience, this is a valuable resource for staff engineers, geologists, project managers, and owners.

Don W. Deere, P.E. Denver, Colorado


Title: Bulletin 83 Precast tunnel segments in fibre-reinforced concrete
Authors: Drafted by Working Party 1.4.1, Tunnels in fibre-reinforced concrete, in Commission 1, Structures; approved as a state-of-the-art report by Commission 1
Year of Publication: 2017
ISBN: 978-2-88394-123-6
Number of pages: 162
Price: Non-members CHF 120.00
Purchase: Online at the fib website

Title: Model Code for Concrete Structures
Final draft - Vol. 1 and Vol. 2
Authors: The fib Special Activity Group 5
Year of Publication: 2012
Publisher: fib - fédération internationale du béton - Federation for Structural Concrete

Volume 1
ISBN: 978-2-88394-105-2
Number of pages: 350
Price: Non-members CHF 80
Purchase: Online at the fib website

Volume 2
ISBN: 978-2-88394-106-9
Number of pages: 370
Price: Non-members CHF 80
Purchase: Online at the fib website
With publication of Bulletin 83, fib Commission 1 initiated a new series of documents related to the use of structural concrete in underground construction, where structural concrete plays a major and increasingly important role. In this context one the most significant applications of structural concrete are tunnel lining. The main drivers of the evolution from reinforced concrete to fibre reinforced concrete are a better ductility, more durability, and easier fabrication and construction processes.
Bulletin 83 presents the experience of innovative designers and contractors acquired on projects built with FRC precast linings and provides guidance about the way to apply 2010 fib Model Code recommendations on FRC to these structures.
The Model Code for Concrete Structures Volumes 1 and 2 have been produced by fib to serve as a basis for future codes and for updating existing codes for concrete structures. Just as the last Model Code of 1990 contributed to development of the Eurocode 2 - Concrete Structures, so this new Model Code will be the basis of all new standards and specifications for the design of concrete structures. Published in two volumes the first volume covers basic principles, principles of structural design, materials and interface characteristics, while the second deals with design, construction, conservation, dismantlement, recycling and reuse.
The documents give an extensive state-of-the-art review of material properties for structural concrete including constitutive relations for concrete up to strength class C120, and properties of reinforcing and prestressing steel, including prestressing systems. Special attention is given to the application of fibre concrete for structural applications, as well as the application of non-metallic reinforcement, interface characteristics, verification assisted by numerical simulations, verification assisted by testing, and to a number of important construction aspects.
The Model Code 2010 is more 'life cycle' oriented than its predecessors, introducing the important new consideration of 'time' with structures designed in future for structural safety and serviceability for a defined number of years. Design criteria are given with relation to reliability, functionality, durability and sustainability. Design rules for serviceability and ultimate limit states are given for a wide range of conditions, such as static and non-static loading (fatigue, impact, explosion, earthquake), and high and low temperatures (fire and cryogenic).
As the first complete draft of the Model Code, this two-volume document is open to suggestions for improvement. Once comments and feedback have been given due consideration, the final documents will be submitted to the fib General Assembly for approval and publication as the final version.


It’s Warmer Down Below: the autobiography of Sir Harold Harding, 1900–1986

ISBN: 978099339650-2
Editor: Amanda Davey
Pages: 288
Language: English
Date of publication: 17 September 2015
Publisher: Tilia Publishing UK
Price: £19.95 (+£3.50 postage in the UK)
Ordering: Tilia Publishing UK
5% of each sale is donated to the ICE Benevolent Fund

Kindle version available through Kindle Unlimited
ISBN: 978099339653-3
Price £9.99 to buy
A proportion of sales from page views and bought copies is also donated to the ICE Benevolent Fund
Now available electronically via Kindle, the autobiography of Sir Harold Harding describes the extraordinary career of the founding Chairman of the British Tunnelling Society and past President of the Institution of Civil Engineers.
Written from a script penned by Sir Harold himself, and edited by Sir Harold’s granddaughter, Amanda Davey, the book details significant changes in engineering techniques and rationale, many of which were actually initiated by Sir Harold in his time as a contracting engineer/director of Mowlem, and later through his consultancy and arbitration as an independent trouble-shooter.
Many of the stories are hair-raising, many are situationally funny, and a great deal of the history of twentieth-century engineering is enlightened by the presence of the man on the job. Harding was indeed a man of huge vision and practical comprehension, with a character that is now rare in people who reach the top of their profession.
The book was launched officially at a special ceremony at the Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) in Great George Street, London. A donation of 5% from each sale of the book will help support the ICE Benevolent Fund, which supports the wellbeing of ICE members and their families in time of need.
Sir Harold worked at the forefront of many initiatives in civil engineering and several key projects, including many tunnels under London. He co-founded Soil Mechanics Ltd and was responsible in part for the introduction of geotechnical investigations to the UK. He was consultant to the Channel Tunnel Study Group in the 1950s right through to the abortive start in 1974. He continued to lobby for a twin bored tunnel in his later years. He was also the technical expert on the Aberfan Tribunal following the catastrophic mine spoil slip in 1966 and initiated the investigations that led to many recommendations that are still relevant today.
Editor Amanda Davey said at the launch: “This is very much HJBH’s book, by him. My role has been to streamline it a bit and iron out the occasional rough edge. There were two chapters that he was not in a position to write; I have done those, and there is a section of small mini-biographies that I have collected which are overflowing with anecdotes.”
She added: “Someone asked me recently what HJBH would have said if he knew his book was finally coming to publication after all these years. I think the only way that I can answer that question is to say that I believe that he would be hugely relieved to learn that all the effort that he put into it had not been wasted, while being rather chuffed that people still cared about what he had to say. I have had a lot of fun working on this book and have also learned a great deal more about a very special man.”


Ground Characterization and Structural Analyses for Tunnel Design

Authors: Benjamín Celada, Z.T. Bieniawski
ISBN : 9780815386629 - CAT# K345074
Pages: 454pp
Published: August 2019
Publisher: CRC Press
Price : £125.00 (hardback), £112.50 (eBook)
Purchase:Order online at
CRC Press
This practical and design-oriented book focuses on ground characterisation and structural calculation, as part of the active structural design methodology. With a focus on rock tunnelling, it offers a comprehensive, rather than a topic-based perspective, deriving sound tunnel design criteria and methods from basic principles. Ground characterisation includes excavations, site investigation, and in-situ stress determination, culminating in geotechnical classifications. The book then deals with various construction methods and their appropriate calculations, which range from constitutive models for the stress-strain behaviour of an excavation and tunnel support elements to a full stress–strain analysis methodology.
The heavily practical approach of the book draws on twenty years of tunnelling experience in Spain and South America. It will help any young or established professional who wants to develop a career in the underground field across both civil engineering and geology. As it incorporates the very fundamentals of tunnelling design, it can be used as a support for tunnelling courses or as a textbook for master’s and PhD courses.
Benjamín Celada was Chief Tunnel Engineer at Hunosa and Potasas de Navarra S.A. before founding Geocontrol S.A. He has also worked for twenty years as Professor of Underground Works at the Polytechnic Mining University in Madrid, Spain.
Z. T. Bieniawski directed the Rock Mechanics Department of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research in Pretoria, then taught at the Pennsylvania State University for twenty years.
Table of Contents
  1. Typology of underground excavations and design issues
  2. Tunnel design methodologies
  3. Site investigations
  4. In situ state of stresses
  5. Laboratory tests
  6. Engineering classifications of rock masses
  7. Methods for tunnel construction
  8. Constitutive models to characterize the ground behavior
  9. Types of tunnel supports
  10. Stress–strain analysis


Sprayed Concrete Lined Tunnels - 2nd Edition

Author: Alun Thomas
ISBN : 9780367209759
Pages: 274pp
Published: September 2019
Publisher: CRC Press
Price : £110.00 (hardback), £99.00 (eBook)
Purchase:Order online at
CRC Press
Sprayed concrete lined (SCL) tunnels are growing rapidly in popularity due to their versatility. The design and construction of both hard rock and soft ground tunnels has been revolutionised by the advent of the SCL method. The use of permanent sprayed concrete linings has now unlocked the true potential of the method to minimise construction costs and times. Yet the complex early age behaviour of the sprayed concrete makes the design difficult and requires a robust management system during construction. Consequently, the great advantages of the method must be balanced against the risks, as a few high-profile tunnel collapses have illustrated.
Practising engineers on site, in the design office, or in client organisations will find Sprayed Concrete Lined Tunnels an excellent introduction. It covers all aspects of SCL tunnelling – from the constituents of sprayed concrete to detailed design and management during construction. Although there is a close interdependence between all the facets of sprayed concrete, few engineers have the right breadth of experience and expertise to cover all of them. This urgently needs to be transferred to the wider engineering community as SCL tunnels play an increasingly important role in the delivery of the underground infrastructure that modern urban life demands.
In this second edition, beyond a general update to reflect new developments, the sections on permanent sprayed concrete, the innovative technology of spray applied waterproofing membranes, fibre reinforcement (both steel and macro synthetic), and composite lining design have been expanded. Sustainability and environmental impact are addressed in a new section.
Table of Contents
  1. What is an SCL Tunnel?
  2. Sprayed Concrete
  3. Construction Methods
  4. Design Approaches
  5. Modelling Sprayed Concrete
  6. Detailed Design
  7. Construction Management


Underground Spaces Unveiled
Planning and creating the cities of the future
Authors: Han Admiraal and
Antonia Cornaro
ISBN: 9780727761453
Pages: Hard cover and 248pp
Published: March 2018
Publisher: ICE Publishing, London
Price: £70.00
Purchase: Order online at the
ICE Bookshop

Underground spaces are typlically overlooked or neglected in the quest for developing compact, energy-efficient, resilient and liveable writes Dr Joan Clos, Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations and Executive Director of the UN-Habitat in her foreword of the Underground Spaces Unveiled publication. As well as the architectural and technical issues of creating underground space, the legal status of space beneath private surface space ownership remains unclear and there are other legal and governance constraints to the planning and management of underground developments.
In providing an in-depth overview of the concept of underground space development, the book addresses the issues, explores the potential and expands the horizon of urban possibilities. Written by Han Admiraal and Antonia Cornaro - an enlightened engineer and a visionary urban planner respectivel - the chapters of the book provide a balanced view with wide appeal intended for civil engineers, urban planners, urban designers and architects as well as policy makers and anyone involved with, or interested in the future of urban development and the built environment. Documenting the use of underground space from ancient times, through existing underground developments, to the plans for potential integration of subsurface space for cities across the globe, to the visions of disrupters for futuristic transportation models and habitation below the surface on Earth, on the Moon, on Mars, the book reveals the benefits, the challenges, and the possibilities of a spatial dimension that is far from understood in its entirety. It places urban underground space development within the timely context of rapid urbanisation, climate change, and urban resilience and discusses the various claims to the subsurface, including the legal aspects and the potential for value capturing.
The book is a must read for all those fascinated by the future of human habitation, about this era of transition in which human intervention is influencing the Earth’s natural systems, about the new balance that must be found between nature and humanity, about new paradigms that question the past and will shape the future. True to its title, the authors help lift the veil of ignorance that covers general attitudes towards the value of the underutilized underground space.
Ground Vibrations from
High-Speed Railways
Prediction and mitigation

Edited by: Victor V Krylov
ISBN: 9780727763792
Format: Hardback
Published: May 2019
Size: 392 page
Price: US$240.00
Print paperback : £140.00
Purchase: ICE Bookshop
Ground Vibrations from High-Speed Railways is a collection of leading international research on the prediction and remediation of railway-induced ground vibration.
As a general reference book, the publication will help the reader to study the problem from different points of view, and provide answers to numerous theoretical and practical questions. Focusing specifically on the significant amplification of ground vibrations that can occur above critical speeds, the book presents a detailed guide to recent and ongoing developments in this area.
The publication offers a complete introduction to underground engineering, including planning, design, construction and the operation of underground structures; assumes little previous knowledge from readers; presents the most recent techniques and future technical trends; is richly illustrated and packed with examples to help readers understand the fundamentals of the underground engineering field.
Topics covered include:
  • Fundamental problems of dynamics of track-ground systems under the impact of high-speed trains
  • Effects of vehicle-track interaction and associated stability problems
  • Railway-generated ground vibrations, including their impact on nearby buildings, effects of tunnels and layered soils
  • Modelling approaches – including 2.5D approaches, analytical and semi-analytical approaches –, numerical approaches, hybrid models, and scoping assessment, and
  • Mitigation strategies, including soil replacement strategies, pile-supported embankments, and use of stochastically rough surfaces.
Edited by Victor V Krylov, Professor of Acoustics and Vibration at Loughborough University, UK, Ground Vibrations from High-Speed Railways will be essential reading for scientists and engineers working on railway vibration and consultants specialising in the environmental impact of railways, and designers of new railway lines. 


Underground Engineering: Planning, Design, Construction and Operation of the Underground Space

Author: Bai Yun
Publisher : Elsevier
Page count: 282pp
Language: English
Published: December 2018
Bundle Print & eBook : US$240.00
Print paperback : US$120.00
eBook : US$120.00
Free global shipping
No minimum order
Purchase:Order on line
Underground Engineering: Planning, Design, Construction and Operation of the Underground Space presents the author's vast experience in underground construction both as an academic and as a practitioner. Sections cover the history of the industry, upcoming challenges, the planning stage of the subsurface use, including financial planning and reliability forecasting, site investigation, instrumentation and modelling, construction techniques and challenges, and more.
Targeted at young professionals, students and researchers, the book contains examples, illustrations and case studies from a wide range of diverse underground uses - from roads to disposal facilities. Young professionals will benefit from the updated and complete overview of underground engineering and students will find the examples and case studies particularly didactic. Richly illustrated, this book is an excellent resource for all involved in the development of the underground space.
The publication offers a complete introduction to underground engineering, including planning, design, construction and the operation of underground structures; assumes little previous knowledge from readers; presents the most recent techniques and future technical trends; is richly illustrated and packed with examples to help readers understand the fundamentals of the underground engineering field.
Table of Contents
  1. History of Subsurface Development
  2. Planning the Use of the Subsurface
  3. Design of Underground Structures
  4. Underground Constructions
  5. Project Management in Underground Engineering
  6. Operation System in Underground Engineering
  7. Disasters and Protection in Underground Engineering
  8. Acknowledgements
Preview the book and order online with Elsvier


The Thames Tideway Tunnel

Author: Phil Stride
Pages : 224pp
Published: February 2019
Publisher: The History Press
Price: £20.00
Purchase: Order online with Amazon
The Thames Tideway Tunnel in London is a multi-billion capital investment project to ensure that, what was known as ‘the great stink’ never happens again. Back in 1858, the Great Stink made much of the city along the River Thames uninhabitable. Between 1848 and 1854 nearly 25,000 Londoners died of the foul water-borne disease cholera. Civil Engineer Joseph Bazalgette saved the city, building sewers that would serve 4 million people and stop wastewater emptying into the Thames.
These remarkable sewers are still the backbone of London’s sewerage system today, but the city’s population is now approaching 10 million. The old sewers cannot cope with the needs of modern-day London and despite various upgrading attempts, each year about 18 million tonne of untreated wastewater is discharged into the River Thames.
The solution today is the £4.2 billion, 25km long x 7.2m diameter Thames Tideway Tunnel that is aligned largely beneath the Thames itself and builds on the legacy of Sir Joseph Bazalgette. It will stop virtually all sewer overflows discharging into the river providing a cleaner and healthier river and city.
The Thames Tideway Tunnel: Preventing Another Great Stink is the inside story on the tunnel, from the very start to breaking ground and all the steps along the way. Written by leading civil engineer and Tideway Strategic Project Manager Phil Stride, the book reveals an inside look at how what is known now as the Super Sewer was planned, designed, approved, funded and is being built. With a foreword by Sir Peter Bazalgette, he provides both detailed historical background and a fascinating account of lessons learnt along the way. The book is a chance to see behind the scenes of an incredible civil engineering project, the largest ever in the UK water industry, and to meet the people who have taken the project forward over the past ten years.
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Lesotho Highlands Water Project
Phase IA and IB reports
Author: Shani Wallis
Published: In 5 volumes of 48 pages each from 1992 to 2000
Published by: LaserLine, UK
Purchase: Order online at
Lesotho Highlands Reports
Single issues:
€35 GBP £30 USD $40
Set of 5 volumes:
€125 GBP £112 USD $150
Five independent publications report the purpose, organization, funding, design, construction and operation of the first phases of the Project from 1992 to 2000.
Each volume was researched, written and published after visits by the author to the management offices and the construction sites of the project and follow interviews with the leading politicians, engineers and equipment suppliers involved with each stage of the procurement and realization stages.
Details of the international treaty that governs the water delivery agreement between the Governments of Lesotho and South Africa as well as project costs and funding arrangements, the design process and construction experiences are described and reported in detail and complete with technical drawings and construction progress photographs.
Major elements of Phase IA of the project included two dams, 82km of water conveyance tunneling and a hydropower plant with IB adding another major dam, a diversion weir and a further 38.4km of tunneling. In detail each phase comprised
Phase IA
  • Katse Dam: 185m high x 710m wide double curvature concrete arch dam
  • Katse Intake Tower: 98m high x 22.6m diameter free-standing reinforced concrete tower
  • Muela Dam: 55m high x 200m wide double curvature concrete arch dam
  • Muela Underground Powerhouse:
    • Machine Hall Cavern: 60m long x 30m high x 14.5m wide
    • Transformer Hall: 20m long x 8m high x 12.5m wide
  • Transfer Tunnel: 45km x 5m diameter excavated by 3 TBMs x 1 drive each
  • Delivery Tunnel South: 15km x 5m diameter, 1 TBM x 3 drives
  • Delivery Tunnel North: 22km x 5m diameter, 1 TBM x 2 drives
Phase IB
  • Mohale Dam: 145m high x 620m wide x 600m thick at the base concrete faced, rockfill embankment
  • Mohale Interconnection Tunnel: 32km x 3.4m diameter x 2 TBMs from each portal to a mid-tunnel junction
  • Matsoku Weir: 180m long x 20m high mass concrete structure
  • Matsoku Transfer Tunnel: 6.4km x 4.5m diameter by drill+blast
Design and Construction of
Fiber-Reinforced Precast
Concrete Tunnel Segments
Authors: ACI Committee 544
ISBN : 9780870319488
Pages: 36
Published: Jan 2016
Publisher: American Concrete Institute
Price: US$81.50
Purchase: Order online at ACI bookshop
Fiber reinforcement has emerged as an alternative to traditional rebar and welded wire mesh reinforcement for precast concrete tunnel lining segments. Significantly improved postcracking behavior and crack control characteristics of fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) segments offer saving of costs and reducing production time while developing a more robust product with improved handling and long-term durability.
To provide specific guidance on the design of fiber-reinforced precast concrete tunnel segments, the ACI 544 Committee offers:
  • general information on the history of FRC precast segments from tunneling projects throughout the world;
  • a procedure for structural analysis and design, based on governing load cases; and
  • a description of the material parameters, tests, and analyses required to complete the design.
The proposed guidelines are based on the knowledge gained from experimental research, analytical work, and the experience gained on numerous FRC precast tunnel projects.
ACI 544.7R covers:
  • FRC design codes, standards, and recommendations
  • Governing load cases and load factors for segments
  • Design for production and transient stages
    • Design for segment stripping
    • Design for segment storage
    • Design for segment transportation
    • Design for segment handling
  • Design for construction stages
    • TBM thrust jack forces
    • Tail skin back-grouting pressure
    • Localized back grouting and secondary grouting pressure
  • Design for service stages
    • Earth pressure, groundwater, and surcharge loads
    • Longitudinal joint bursting load
    • Loads induced due to additional distortion
    • Earthquake, fire, and explosion
  • Material parameters for design
  • Tests and Performance Evaluation
    • Material parameters, tests, and analyses
    • Full-scale tests
  • Hybrid reinforcement for tunnel linings
  • Design Examples
Download a pdf preview


History of Tunneling in the United States
Hardcover: 564 pages
Publisher: UCA of SME
ISBN-10: 0873354303
ISBN-13: 978-0873354301
Product Dimensions:
10 x 10 x 2in (26 x 296x 4.5cm)
Cost: US$259.00
UCA members: US$129.00
Purchase: Online order form
A chronicle of 200 years of tunnelling and underground space development in the United States is presented in a lush coffee table book produced and compiled by the US Underground Construction Association (UCA) and published by its host organisation the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration (SME).
Edited by UCA members Michael F. Roach, Colin A. Lawrence, David R. Klug and W. Brian Fulcher, the content of the 564 page long book is written and contributed by fellow members of the UCA of SME and leading professionals of the US tunnelling industry.
The book takes the reader on a journey, a journey from the early days of building a nation and the role that tunnelling and underground public infrastructure has played during that remarkable journey, a journey well documented and presented in a timeline of milestone prepared and contributed by Professor Priscilla Nelson, Department Head of Mining Engineering at the Colorado School of Mines.
Other sections of the book and their editors include:
  • The Building of a Nation - Colin Lawrence
  • Societal Benefits - Robert Goodfellow, Priscilla Nelson
  • Railroad Tunnels - Robert Robinson
  • Transit Tunnels - William Hansmire
  • Highway Tunnels - Lee Abramson
  • Water Tunnels - Michael Bruen
Two further chapters discuss:
  • Innovations in Tunneling by David Klug and
  • The Future of Tunneling – Amanda Ellioff
Co-editor Michael Roach discussed the content of the book and its journey of development in a video interview with TunnelTalk during the recent (June 2017) RETC conference in San Diego, California.
Order this beautifully crafted and comprehensively illustrated book for your private bookshelf or company library via the online order form. The US$259.00 ($129 to UCA members) is an investment in understanding the building of the United States of America and the underground solutions to urban and national infrastructure challenges in each period of that history.


Tunnel Fire Testing and Modeling
The Morgex North Tunnel Experiment

Borghetti, F., Derudi, M.,
Gandini, P., Frassoldati, A.,
Tavelli, S.
ISBN : 978-3-319-49517-0
Published: 2017
Digitally watermarked: DRM-free
Format: PDF, EPUB
ebooks can be used on all reading devices
Immediate eBook download after purchase
Price: USD $54.00
Ebook:USD $39.99
Order on the Springer website
A publication to cast light on all aspects of tunnel fires, based on experimental activities and theoretical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. In particular, the authors describe a transient full-scale fire test (~15 MW), explaining how they designed and performed the experimental activity inside the Morgex North tunnel in Italy. The entire organization of the experiment is described, from preliminary evaluations to the solutions found for management of operational difficulties and safety issues. This fire test allowed the collection of different measurements (temperature, air velocity, smoke composition, pollutant species) useful for validating and improving CFD codes and for testing the real behaviour of the tunnel and its safety systems during a diesel oil fire with a significant heat release rate. Finally, the fire dynamics are compared with empirical correlations, CFD simulations, and literature measurements obtained in other similar tunnel fire tests.
The book will be of interest to all engineers and public officials who are concerned with the nature, prevention, and management of tunnel fires.


Tunnel Fire Dynamics
Ingason, Haukur, Li, Ying Zhen,
Lönnermark, Anders
ISBN : 978-1-4939-2199-7
Published: 2015
Digitally watermarked: DRM-free
Format: PDF, EPUB
ebooks can be used on all reading devices
Immediate eBook download after purchase
Price: USD $229.00
Order on the Springer website
  • Closely analyzes tunnel ventilation systems, and serves as a reference guide for optimizing fire safety
  • Presents a unique combination of theoretical science and practical engineering in tunnel fire safety
  • Examines the major issues facing fire safety engineers in tunnels, and outlines solutions for each
Covering a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describing the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presenting state-of-the-art research, and providing detailed solutions to these major issues.
Examples for calculations are provided with the aim to improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels significantly. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques designed to equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels.
The book is of interest to engineers and public officials with responsibility for transportation tunnels and to fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.


Handbook of Tunnel Fire Safety, 2nd edition
Alan Beard and Richard Carvel
Price: £ 122.00
Special Offer Price: £ 85.40
ISBN: 9780727741530
Format: Hardbound
Publish Date: 31/10/2011
Publisher: ICE Publishing
Page Size: 243x170mm
Number of Pages:714
Order on the ICE Bookshop
The first book to span the spectrum of state-of-the-art knowledge in tunnel fire safety science and engineering, drawing on the latest research and the extensive experience of the authors to help readers identify limitations in tunnel designs, technologies and models and – ultimately – make decisions to prevent unacceptable risk.
The publication includes
  • international case studies of real-life tunnel fire incidents highlighting the lessons learned
  • coverage of the latest tunnel fire safety research, including the UPTUN project
  • expert international authorship imparting knowledge and experience of tunnel fire safety science, technology, engineering, management and emergency services
  • extensive references to direct readers to sources of in-depth information on specific topics.
A comprehensive coverage of the complex subject of tunnel fire safety, from heat release rates to modelling and human behaviour, and an essential resource for tunnel designers, contractors, operators and regulators; tunnel fire safety researchers, consultants and equipment manufacturers; and fire brigades and other emergency service providers.


An introduction to pipejacking and microtunnelling
Editor: Pipe Jacking Association
Pages: 24
Publisher: Pipe Jacking Association
Price: £25
ISBN: 978-1-5272-0331-9
The new publication by the Pipe Jacking Association (PJA) is an updated introduction to the pipejacking and microtunnelling methods and technology. The methods are used extensively for the installation of non-disruptive utility tunnels and can deliver considerable environmental benefits compared with open-cut pipe installation, as carbon emissions can be reduced by up to 75%, traffic congestion is reduced, and long term damage to existing infrastructure is mostly eliminated.
The new 24 page colour publication provides an overview of pipejacking and its benefits, with more than 50 updated computer graphics and illustrations. Topics covered include applications and benefits, site investigation requirements, design and construction methods, including details of excavation systems available, jacking pipes, jacking lengths, loads and tolerances.
The document can be viewed on the PJA website as a flipbook .
A powerpoint presentation covering the document’s content is also available on the PJA website, which, together with downloadable lecture notes, can form a part of a CPD (continuing professional development) programme.
Hard printed copies of the publication are available from the Pipe Jacking Association at a cost of £25 and pdf copies can be downloaded from the website.


Breakthrough: Crossrail’s Tunnelling Story
Editor: Sarah Allen
Pages: 140
Publisher: Crossrail
Price: £9.99
Ordering: Order online
Following the completion of the tunnelling marathon under London, Crossrail has published a book that celebrates the major achievement for the project.
Teams of workers spent three years to complete the tunnel under the city, operating eight TBMs and applying the latest in tunnel and excavation engineering technology. With more than 150 stunning photographs, the book explores how some of the deepest, largest and longest tunnels under London have created one of the most extensive underground projects in the UK in a generation.
The book is available to buy from the London Transport Museum in Covent Garden and through its online shop.


Platform for Design
Author: Hugh Pearman
Pages: 151
Publisher: Crossrail
Price: £9.99
Ordering: Order online
A book by architecture critic and RIBA Journal Editor Hugh Pearman, is published by Crossrail and explores the design of the new public spaces and upgraded stations of the project.
With more than 150 visualisations and photographs, the book is a review of the full railway project delivered by Crossrail, which is currently the largest infrastructure project in Europe.
The book is available to buy from the London Transport Museum in Covent Garden and through its online shop.


The Archaeology of Crossrail
The construction of London’s newest railway, underneath the streets of the historic and complex city, has resulted in one of the largest archaeology programmes ever undertaken in Britain.
The book will explore in detail the extensive range of discoveries found along the route of the Elizabeth Line and as unearthed by the Crossrail construction project.
Watch for more details once the book is published.


Ground Improvement by Deep Vibratory Methods
Authors: Klaus Kirsch and Fabian Kirsch
Pages: 234
Illustrations: 130
Publisher: CRC Press
Publication date: 29 July 2016
Price: £99.00 (hardback)
Ordering: Order online
Vibro compaction and vibro stone columns are the two dynamic methods of soil improvement most commonly used worldwide. These methods have been developed over almost 80 years and are now of unrivalled importance as modern foundation measures.
Vibro compaction works on granular soils by densification, and vibro stone columns are used to displace and reinforce fine-grained and cohesive soils by introducing inert material.
This second edition includes also a chapter on vibro concrete columns constructed with almost identical depth vibrators. These small diameter concrete piles are increasingly used as ground improvement methods for moderately loaded large spread foundations, although the original soil characteristics are only marginally improved.
This practical guide for professional geotechnical engineers and graduate students systematically covers the theoretical basis and design principles behind the methods, the equipment used during their execution, and state of the art procedures for quality assurance and data acquisition.
All the chapters are updated in line with recent developments and improvements in the methods and equipment. Fresh case studies from around the world illustrate the wide range of possible applications. The book concludes with variations to methods, evaluates the economic and environmental benefits of the methods, and gives contractual guidance.


Transportation Tunnels (2nd edition)
Authors: S. Ponnuswamy and D. Johnson Victor
Pages: 370
Illustrations: 130
Publisher: CRC Press
Publication date: 17 May 2016
Price: £95.00 (hardback)
Ordering: Order online
Transportation Tunnels, 2nd edition, provides a comprehensive text on tunnelling and tunnel engineering applicable in general to all types of tunnels, with more detailed information on highway and railway tunnels. While the 1st edition of the book was confined to railway and highway tunnels, the latest edition considers the latest trends in the use of tunnels for water conveyance, navigation and material conveyance.
It covers all aspects of investigation, design, construction, monitoring and maintenance, with special emphasis on geotechnical investigations, the subsequent interpretation of these findings and relating this to design and construction. The book reflects advancements in knowledge about ground behaviour, rock mechanics and construction technology, including the increasing use of TBMs in the last two decades.
The book covers the basic requirements of the tunnel profile, the geometric parameters, design methodologies, support methodologies, excavation methods, lighting, drainage and maintenance.
The expanded text on the use and advantages of various methodologies and tunnelling equipment is based on observations gathered through site visits, and discussions with and experiences of engineers working on a large number of tunnelling projects.
The book serves as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as a reference book for practising engineers.


PAS 8810:2016 Tunnel design - Design of concrete segmental tunnel linings – Code of practice
Pages: 100
Date of publication: April 2016
Publisher: British Standards Institution
Price: £113.00
Ordering: Order online
SAVE 50% as a British Standards member.
Segmental tunnel linings are currently designed with reference to a large number of standards and documents. PAS 8810 brings all of these together into a single, usable standardisation document that aims to reduce unnecessary administration and delay by streamlining, clarifying and standardising the design process for segmental lining design. 
PAS 8810 is a publicly accessible standard published by the British Standards Institution that documents recommendations and codes of practice for the design of concrete segmental tunnel linings. It covers design considerations from project inception through to the end of the service life of the tunnel. At the early stage of the design, the study of the options for the selection of the tunnel lining is not limited to concrete segmental tunnel linings. So, Clauses 4 to 8 in the PAS cover the general aspects of tunnel design and Clauses 9 to 12 give specific, technical recommendations on precast concrete lining elements for segmental tunnel linings.
PAS 8810 sets out detailed recommendations as referred to by existing national and international industry standards. It also includes specific design recommendations for the design items not available in any other standards. PAS 8810 covers:
  • Functional requirements
  • Conceptual design
  • Characterisation of ground
  • Materials design and specification
  • Material characterisation and testing
  • Limit state design
  • Concrete segmental lining design
  • Concrete segment lining modelling
  • Instrumentation and monitoring
  • Design management
This PAS does not cover:
  • Sprayed concrete lined tunnels
  • Cast insitu concrete lined tunnels
  • Any tunnel lining using material other than concrete, such as spheroidal graphite iron or steel
  • Cut and cover tunnels
  • Drill+blast excavations
  • Hard rock tunnelling
  • Pipejacking
  • Project planning and management


Annual Review 2015 TunnelTalk printed yearbook

Pages: 100
Date of publication: March 2016
Publisher: TunnelTalk
Price: £25 or $25 or €30 per copy including postage
Ordering: Online order form
The sixth edition of the TunnelTalk Annual Review is now available. The Annual Review draws together coverage during the year of planned projects, progress of on-going projects, highlights of company and industry news and career moves as well as reports from the 2015 conferences and events that TunnelTalk attended during the year and as published initially on the TunnelTalk web magazine. Our annual printed magazine provides a snapshot of the year’s main activities and is the most cost effective printed magazine for company promotion and advertising as the one edition goes to all the principal events, conferences and exhibitions of the current year. Every year this includes the ITA World Tunnel Congress, RETC or NAT in North America, and principal events in other countries and different parts of the world.
To order a copy for your personal library and bookshelf complete the on-line order form
To explore the Annual Review advertisement opportunities contact or
TEL: +1 202 470 3310 or +44 (0)208 816 7011


Prestressed Concrete-Lined Pressure Tunnels: Towards Improved Safety and Economical Design

Author: T.D.Y.F. Simanjuntak
Publication: Paperback
ISBN: 9781138028531
Pages: 148
Illustrations: 28 July 2015
Date of publication:
Publisher: CRC Press
Price: £38.99
Ordering: via CRC Press
Hydropower can be a source of sustainable energy, provided environmental considerations are taken into account and economic aspects of hydropower design are appropriately addressed. Using concrete-lined pressure tunnels instead of steel pipes may be economically attractive but may also have limitations due to the low tensile strength of concrete.
Cracking in concrete tunnel linings can lead to loss of energy production, extensive repairs, and even accidents. One of the techniques available to improve the bearing capacity of pressure tunnels is through prestressing the concrete lining by grouting the circumferential gap between the concrete lining and the rock mass at high pressure. A classical approach to determine the bearing capacity of such tunnels is based on the theory of elasticity, assuming impervious concrete. In this research, a new concept is introduced to assess the effect of seepage on the bearing capacity of pressure tunnels. Also, an innovative approach is proposed to explore the effects of the in-situ stress ratio on the lining performance. Distinction is made based on whether the rock mass behaves as an elasto-plastic isotropic, or elastic anisotropic material. Furthermore, a simplified method is introduced to quantify seepage associated with cracks around the tunnel, which is useful for assessing tunnel stability.
The book is based on the PhD research of the author.


Geology for Ground Engineering Projects

Author: Chris J. N. Fletcher
Publication: Paperback
ISBN: 9781466585492
Pages: 302
Illustrations: 562 (colour)
Date of publication: Forthcoming (20 June 2016)
Publisher: CRC Press
Price: £49.99
Ordering: via CRC Press
Geology for Ground Engineering Projects provides a comprehensive presentation of, and insight into, the critical geological phenomena that may be encountered in many engineering projects, for example rock contact relationships, weathering and karst phenomena in tropical areas, composition of fault zones and variability of rock discontinuities. Examples are provided from around the world, including Southeast Asia, Europe, North and South America, China and India.
Comprehensive and well-illustrated, this definitive book:
  • Describes the important geological phenomena that could affect ground engineering projects
  • Provides a practical knowledge-base for relevant geological processes
  • Addresses common geological issues and concerns
Rocks are described in relation to the environment of their formation, highlighting the variation in composition, distribution and geotechnical properties that can be expected within a variety of rock associations. Case studies, where geology has been a vital factor, are included. These are written by the project engineers or geologists responsible for the projects. Readers are directed to satellite images of selected areas to explore for themselves many of the geological features described in the book.
Author Chris Fletcher is a consulting geologist, based in Wales. He graduated from St Andrew’s University in Scotland, and then moved to Canada to complete an MSc at Queen’s University and a PhD at the University of British Columbia. Most of his career has been with the British Geological Survey, both in the UK and overseas. He then became director of the Hong Kong Geological Survey and later managed his own geological consulting company. He was an Honorary Professor at universities in Hong Kong and China, where he presented graduate and professional development courses.


Geomechanics in Soil, Rock, and Environmental Engineering

Author: John Small
Publication: Paperback
ISBN: 9781498739290
Pages: 541
Illustrations: 450 (b&w)
Date of publication: 9 March 2016
Publisher: CRC Press
Price: £57.99
Ordering: via CRC Press
Aimed at course instructors as a practical and advanced-level textbook, Geomechanics in Soil, Rock, and Engineering Practice is deeply rooted in engineering practice and would also suit practising engineers as a reference guide, or students in their final undergraduate course in geomechanics/master’s-level students.
Modern practice in geomechanics is becoming increasingly reliant on computer-based software, much of which can be obtained through the Internet. In Geomechanics the application of these numerical techniques is examined not only for soil mechanics, but also for rock mechanics and environmental applications.
The book deals with the modern analysis of shallow foundations, deep foundations, retaining structures, and excavation and tunnelling. Many fresh solutions to problems are presented to enable more accurate and advanced designs to be carried out.
Utilising both computer and hand-based calculations, Geomechanics incorporates the author’s more than 40 years of academic and practical design experience.


Traditional Timbering in Soft Ground Tunnelling – A Historical Review

Author: Colin Mackenzie BSc(CE) FICE
Publication: Hard cover printed edition
ISBN: 978-0-9546106-3-0
Pages: 78
Date of publication: September 2015
Publisher: BTS – British Tunnelling Society
Price: £20 plus P&P
Ordering: Email BTS Secretary
A hard cover print edition of the publication is now available from the BTS. Realising that the design and installation of traditional timber support for underground works is becoming an increasingly rare skill over recent years, BTS invited Colin Mackenzie, a past Chairman of the Society and a leading tunnel construction engineer in the UK, now retired, to write the review of the technique and from his own career experiences. The technique is still required for short or complex hand-mined headings within larger mechanically excavated and lined structures and Mackenzie has career experience of working with timber support systems on many tunnelling projects in the London region and in the London Clay geological medium, including on the Victoria Line of the London Underground in the 1960s.
Written with experienced know-how, and illustrated with detailed technical drawings, the review retains the knowledge and provides an introduction and historical guide to engineering graduates and professionals who are working on projects that require timbering support. Order your printed reference copy of the publication by sending an email to the Secretary of the BTS at the Institution of Civil Engineers in London. Study of the book will have the terminology and application of a benk bar, crown bar, flitch beam, judkin, sprag and yankee brob understood and appreciated.
Aurthor of the publication, Colin Mackenzie, was on hand to sign copies and provide personal anecdotes with BTS colleagues of working with traditional timbering support during the book launch at the ICE in September.


Underground Construction - Good practice guides

Publisher: Produced under the auspices of the Crossrail Project in London
Date of publication: Various
Available as free pdf downloads from the British Tunnelling Society website
When embarking on the programme of underground excavations for the immense Crossrail project under the heart of the city of London, the project’s senior manages commissioned the preparation of a series of good practice guides to be developed in conjunction with the project’s main tunnelling and underground space contractors and consulting engineers to provide reference guides for the setup, management, operation and monitoring of various construction activities involved. Although the contents do not necessarily reflect the views of the BTS, the Society recognises the value of the guides and make pdf copies on its website for free.
Construction Railway Operations: The guide presents a check-list of every fine detail associated with the safe and efficient operation, management and maintenance of the vital rail bound service trains providing services to and from advancing tunnel headings. From multiple train movements, both in the tunnels and in shunting areas on the surface, to planning and managing separation of personnel from train movements, the guide also covers rail vehicle and tunnel track maintenance. Examples of best practice identified at a local level have been compiled for sharing across the project and through free distribution.
SCL Exclusion Zone Management: The falling of immature or green concrete within sprayed concrete lined tunnels is a major risk to personnel working in a tunnel, and one of the important mitigation measures to prevent injury is the use of exclusion zones for high risk areas. The guide is compiled to provide guidance on the consistent application of control measures to be used in the management of exclusion zones and restricted areas around active working areas in tunnels employing SCL to ensure the highest degree of safety for the workers in the construction area.
Pressure Systems: The principal causes of pressure‐related incidents are poor design, installation and/or maintenance of equipment, inadequate repairs or modifications, an unsafe system of work, and operator error and poor training/supervision. The main hazards from pressure are impact from the blast of an explosion or release of compressed liquid or gas, impact from parts of equipment that fail or any flying debris, contact with the released liquid or gas, such as steam and fire resulting from the escape of flammable liquids or gases. The guide suggests minimum requirements for the safe use of pressure systems, provides best practice, competency and training guidance.
Occupational exposure to respirable dust: The exposures to higher levels of respirable dust in an underground working environment, particularly in area of SCL application require extra measures be taken to reduce exposures wherever possible. Efficient ventilation is needed to assist in the removal of respirable dust and personal protective equipment must be available to those working in high-risk areas of exposure. The guide presents a comprehensive study of monitoring levels of respirable dust in the environment and recommends areas of further study and development.


Ecodesign for Cities and Suburbs

ISBN: 978-1610913423
Authors: Jonathan Barnett and Larry Beasley
Pages: 280
Illustrations: 145 full color photographs, 32 illustrations
Language: English
Date of publication: 31 August 2015
Publisher: Island Press
Price: US$45.00 (paperback); US$80.00 (hardback)
Ordering: Island Press
As world population grows, and more people move to cities and suburbs, they place greater stress on the operating system of our whole planet. But urbanization and increasing densities also present our best opportunity for improving sustainability, by transforming urban development into desirable, lower-carbon, compact and walkable communities and business centers.
Jonathan Barnett and Larry Beasley seek to demonstrate that a sustainable built and natural environment can be achieved through ecodesign, which integrates the practice of planning and urban design with environmental conservation, through normal business practices and the kinds of capital programs and regulations already in use in most communities. Ecodesign helps adapt the design of our built environment to both a changing climate and a rapidly growing world, creating more desirable places in the process.
In six comprehensively illustrated chapters, the authors explain ecodesign concepts, including the importance of preserving and restoring natural systems while also adapting to climate change; minimizing congestion on highways and at airports by making development more compact, and by making it easier to walk, cycle and take trains and mass transit; crafting and managing regulations to insure better placemaking and fulfil consumer preferences, while incentivizing preferred practices; creating an inviting and environmentally responsible public realm from parks to streets to forgotten spaces; and finally how to implement these ecodesign concepts.
Throughout the book, the ecodesign framework is demonstrated by innovative practices that are already under way or have been accomplished in many cities and suburbs – from Hammarby Sjöstad in Stockholm, to False Creek North in Vancouver, to Battery Park City in Manhattan, as well as many smaller scale examples that can be adopted in any community.
Ecodesign thinking is relevant to anyone who has a part in shaping or influencing the future of cities and suburbs – designers, public officials and politicians.


Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel

Series: Images of America
ISBN: 978-1467134323
Author: John Warren
Pages: 128
Photographs: 200+
Language: English
Date of publication: 31 August 2015
Publisher: Arcadia Publishing
Price: US$21.99
Ordering: Arcadia website
or via Amazon
At its opening in 1964, the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel was named one of the Five Wonders of the Modern World by Readers Digest magazine. It was the culmination of a concerted, decade-long push by a group of men, led by Lucius J. Kellam Jr., an Eastern Shore native and businessman who dreamed of opening up the remote Eastern Shore to the bustling Virginia mainland. This $200-million, 17.6-mile-long series of bridges, tunnels, islands, and trestle in the middle of the Chesapeake Bay – long dismissed as impractical and even impossible – won the attention of the world at its opening. It also sounded the death-knell for the historic ferry service that was long a cornerstone of the New York-to-Florida Ocean Highway, shuttling millions of cars between the Eastern Shore and Hampton Roads.
Virginia resident John Warren wrote the “Road Warrior” column for the Virginian-Pilot newspaper in Norfolk, Virginia, from 1999– 2009. His reporting included transportation and the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel. He has also worked at the Mariners’ Museum in Newport News, Virginia.
The book will be of anyone with an interest in the social history and engineering history of one of America’s most iconic structures. The timing of the book coincides with ambitious modern-day plans to dual the tunnel sections at the centre of the Bay crossing.
RFQs for USA Bay Bridge Tunnel expansion TunnelTalk, April 2015


Geotechnical Baseline Reports for Construction Suggested Guidelines

ISBN: 9780784409305
Edited by: Randall J. Essex
Pages: 72
Language: English
Date of publication: Revised 2007
Publisher: ASCE – American Society of Civil Engineers
Price: US$30.00 (soft cover + shipping), US$30.00(pdf e-book)
Ordering: ASCE website
Prepared by the Technical Committee on Geotechnical Reports of the Underground Technology Research Council of the Construction Institute of ASCE. Sponsored by the Construction Institute of ASCE and the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers.
The book examines the role of the geotechnical baseline report (GBR) as a means of allocating and managing subsurface risks associated with subsurface construction. It discusses the importance and benefit of ensuring compatibility between the GBR and other contract documents, as well as the importance of involving experienced firms and individuals in the preparation and review process. A revision and update of the previously published Geotechnical Baseline Reports of Underground Construction: Guidelines and Practices, this edition includes new chapters on the application of GBRs to other types of subsurface projects, the application of GBRs in design-build project delivery, and recommendations drawn from industry-wide lessons learned.
Other topics include the organization and content of a GBR, owners' perspectives, and a discussion of the rational for the use of GBRs as a risk management tool.
Baseline Reports: The conundrum of the baseline TunnelTalk, Aug 2015


Tunnel Fire Dynamics

Author: Haukur Ingason, Ying Zhen Li, Anders Lönnermark (of the SP Fire Research Institute)
Pages: 522
Illustrations: 132 (21 in colour)
Language: English
Date of publication: 31 December 2014
Publisher: Springer
Price: £153 (hardcover), £122 (e-book)
Ordering: Springer Civil Engineering
Authored by three scientists at Sweden’s well-respected SP Fire Research institute, Tunnel Fire Dynamics closely analyses tunnel ventilation systems, and serves as a reference guide for optimising fire safety; presents a unique combination of theoretical science and practical engineering in tunnel fire safety; and examines the major issues facing fire safety engineers in tunnels, and outlines solutions for each.
This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels.
Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modelling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels, and make the book a must-have reference guide for any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.
The unique collection of examples contained in the book – in the form of table values and formulas – facilitates future research. The book focuses on practical knowledge gained from an analysis of actual fires, as well as from studies carried out in a test environment – at both full scale and model scale. Crucial parameters for how fires can develop are carefully described, and the book also reports the fire tests carried out in tunnels over the last 40 years.
Other subjects for discussion include: optimising tunnel design from a fire safety perspective; fixed fire fighting systems (sprinklers); the effects of active systems on the tunnel environment; and new basic knowledge about the development of fire in vehicles.


Mechanics of Groundwater in Porous Media

Author: Muhammad I. Haque, professor of engineering and applied science in the Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering at The George Washington University
Pages: 280
Illustrations: 131
Date of Publication: 23 July 2014
Publisher: CMC (Taylor & Francis)
Price: £89.00
Order online
(quote code AQN55 to receive a 20% discount)
Written for engineering and science students, Mechanics of Groundwater in Porous Media explains groundwater from both a mathematical and qualitative standpoint. The book builds up the theory of groundwater flow starting from basic physics and geometric intuition, and on to applied practice through real-world engineering problems. It includes graphical illustrations as well as solved illustrative problems throughout the text.
The book starts off by introducing the overall picture of groundwater, its relationship with the hydrological cycle, and other terminology used in the mechanics of groundwater flow though porous means. It presents a synopsis of basic definitions, concepts, and the fundamental principles of fluid mechanics and soil mechanics, which are necessary prerequisites for an adequate understanding of the book’s core material. The engineering applications are deducted from geometric and physical reasoning, with a minimum use of mathematical abstraction.
Mechanics of Groundwater in Porous Media is written primarily to serve as a textbook for senior undergraduate and upper-level graduate students in civil and environmental engineering, environmental science, hydrogeology, and geology, as well as a resource for practising engineers.


Integrated Design and Cost Management for Engineers

Author: Andrew Whyte
Pages: 471
Illustrations: 90
Date of Publication: 27 August 2014
Publisher: CMC (Taylor & Francis)
Price: £34.99
Order online
(quote code AQN55 to receive a 20% discount)
A guide to successfully designing, estimating, and scheduling a civil engineering project, Integrated Design and Cost Management for Civil Engineers shows how practising professionals can design fit-for-use solutions within established time frames and reliable budgets. This text combines technical compliance with practical solutions in relation to cost planning, estimating, time, and cost control. It incorporates solutions that are technically sound as well as cost effective and time efficient. It focuses on the integration of design and construction based on solid engineering foundations contained within a code of ethics, and navigates engineers through the complete process of project design, pricing, and tendering.
The book uses cases studies to illustrate principles and processes. Although they centre on Australasia and Southeast Asia, the principles are internationally relevant. The material details procedures that emphasise the correct quantification and planning of works, resulting in reliable cost and time predictions. It also works toward minimising the risk of losing business through cost blowouts or losing profits through underestimation.
Designed to help civil engineers develop and apply a multitude of skill bases, Integrated Design and Cost Management for Civil Engineers can aid them in maintaining relevancy in appropriate design justifications, guide work tasks, control costs, and structure project timelines. The book is an ideal link between a civil engineering course and practice.


Centrifuge Modelling for Civil Engineers

Author: Dr Gopal Madabhushi, professor of civil engineering at the University of Cambridge, UK; director of the Schofield Centre
Pages: 316
Illustrations: 214
Date of Publication: 30 July 2014
Publisher: CMC (Taylor & Francis)
Price: £35.00
Order online
(quote code AQN55 to receive a 20% discount)
Presenting more than 25 years of teaching and working experience in a wide variety of centrifuge testing, the author of Centrifuge Modelling for Civil Engineers fills a need for information about this field. This text covers all aspects of centrifuge modelling. Expertly explaining the basic principles, the book makes this technique accessible to practising engineers and researchers.
Civil engineers that are new to the industry can refer to this material to solve complex geotechnical problems. The book outlines a generalised design process employed for civil engineering projects. It begins with the basics, and then moves on to increasingly complex methods and applications including shallow foundations, retaining walls, pile foundations, tunnelling beneath existing pile foundations, and assessing the stability of buildings and their foundations following earthquake-induced soil liquefaction. It addresses the use of modern imaging technique, data acquisition, and modelling techniques. It explains the necessary signal processing tools that are used to decipher centrifuge test data, and introduces the reader to the specialist aspects of dynamic centrifuge modelling used to study dynamic problems such as blast, wind, or wave loading with emphasis on earthquake engineering including soil liquefaction problems.
Centrifuge Modelling for Civil Engineers effectively describes the equipment, instrumentation, and signal processing techniques required to make the best use of the centrifuge modelling and test data. This text benefits graduate students, researchers, and practicing civil engineers involved with geotechnical issues.


Cities without Ground: A Hong Kong Guidebook

Authors: Jonathan Solomon; Clara Wong; Adam Frampton
Pages: 128pp
Date of Publication: November 2012
Publisher: ORO Editions
ISBN: 978-1-935935-32-2
Price: USD 19.95
Order online
Hong Kong is a city without ground. Density obliterates figure-ground in the city and, in turn, re-defines public-private spatial relationships. In fact, Hong Kong lacks any of the traditional figure-ground relationships that shape urban space: axis, edge, centre, even fabric.
Cities Without Ground explores this condition and is the first attempt to map the labyrinth of interwoven walkways, bridges and underground space by mapping three-dimensional circulation networks that join shopping malls, train stations and public transport interchanges, public parks and private lobbies as a series of spatial models and drawings.
Author Clara Wang explained that, “as architects working and living in Hong Kong, my co-authors and I were intrigued by its ‘groundlessness’ – pedestrians move in a three-dimensional network, from interior to exterior, air conditioned to non-air conditioned, public to private, through a continuum of walkways and tunnels where various activities take place. It can be confusing to navigate, so we decided to make a city guide that maps these 3D routes.”
The networks form a continuous space of variegated environments that serves as a fundamental public resource for the city. The emergence of the shopping malls as spaces of civil society rather than of global capital and grounds of resistance comes as a surprise. This continuous network and the microclimates of temperature, humidity, noise and smell, which differentiate it, constitute an entirely new form of urban spatial hierarchy. Air particle concentration is both logical and counterintuitive: outdoor air is more polluted, while the air in the higher-end malls is cleaner than air adjacent to lower value retail programs. Train stations, while significantly cooler than bus terminals, have only moderately cleaner air. Boundaries determined by sound or smell (a street of flower vendors or bird keepers, or an artificially perfumed mall) can ultimately provide more substantive spatial boundaries than a ground.


Traditional Timbering in Soft Ground Tunnelling – A Historical Review

Author: Colin Mackenzie BSc(CE) FICE
Pages: 78
Date of Publication: September 2014
Publisher: BTS – British Tunnelling Society
Price: Free PDF download from the BTS website
Design and installation of traditional timber support for underground works has become an increasingly rare skill over recent years but its need is no less necessary for short or complex hand-mined headings within larger mechanically excavated and lined structures. Recognising the decline of this expertise, the British Tunnelling Society invited Colin Mackenzie, a past Chairman of the Society and a leading tunnel construction engineer in the UK and now retired, to write a review of the technique and from his own career experiences of working with timber support systems on many tunnelling projects in the London region and in London Clay as the geological medium, including the Victoria Line of the London Underground in the 1960s.
Written with experienced know-how, and illustrated with detailed technical drawings, the review retains the knowledge and provides an introduction and historical guide to engineering graduates and professionals who are working on projects that require timbering support.


Sir Harold Harding – Autobiography: It’s warmer down below

Edited by: Amanda Davey
Date of Publication: Early 2015
Publisher: TBC
Price: TBA
Production details from
A posthumous autobiography by Sir Harold Harding and drawn from his writings, diaries, and archive, is being edited for publication by his granddaughter Amanda Davey.
Sir Harold was a true giant in the British construction engineering industry and his expertise, knowledge and willingness to be involved, had him associated with many major tunnelling projects both in the UK and across the world, as well as being engaged with many organisations and associations including as President of the Institution of Civil Engineers and the founding Chairman of the British Tunnelling Society.
The chapters of his autobiography will chart his career as a Contractor’s Engineer from 1922 to 1946, his broadening involvement in other engineering disciplines, and his voluntary work with associations from 1946 onwards, his Age of Advising from 1956 to 1976, ending with an Indian Summer of a Civil Engineer from 1976 that included continuing lobbying for construction of the Channel Tunnel fixed link with France and the Continent that he remained committed to but did not live to see fully realised. The story will follow his experiences as an engineer on projects from his first job on the Camden Town to Euston Tube Tunnels for the London Underground in 1922 and the system’s Charing Cross and Piccadilly Circus Stations in 1926, to repairing bombed Underground tunnels during WWII, deep shaft sinking in South Africa, and on projects in the USA, Mexico, India, Ceylon, Lebanon, Uganda and Kenya. Told in his inimitable and entertaining style, this book promises to fill gaps in the historical record and illuminate many projects.
Work is progressing towards a publication date in either late 2014/early 2015, and donations towards covering production costs would be gratefully received to secure publication. A proportion of sales will also be donated to the ICE Benevolent Fund that supports engineers and their dependants in times of need. Make contact with the Editor at


Fundamentals of Ground Engineering

Author: John Atkinson
Senior Principal Coffey Geotechnics
Emeritus Professor of Soil Mechanics, City University, London
Pages: 242
Illustrations: 399
Date of Publication: 13 May 2014
Publisher: CRC Press (Taylor and Francis)
Price: £18.99
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(quote code AQN55 to receive a 20% discount)
Fundamentals of Ground Engineering is an unconventional study guide that serves up the key principles, theories, definitions, and analyses of geotechnical engineering in bite-sized pieces.
The book contains brief - one or two pages per topic - snippets of information covering the geotechnical engineering component of a typical undergraduate course in civil engineering as well as some topics for advanced courses. Written in note form, it summarizes the basic principles and theories of soil mechanics, the procedures for creating a geotechnical model, and the common analyses for slopes, foundations, and walls.
  • Puts the mechanics into soil mechanics
  • Presents information that is simple to use - structured around diagrams and formulae with few words
  • Explains detailed analyses given in the longer standard texts
A short, easily read summary of the basic theories and routine analyses of ground engineering, Fundamentals of Ground Engineering incorporates plenty of diagrams and concentrated data without going into detailed explanations. The text is an ideal reference for students of civil engineering at both BSc and MSc level, as well as serving as a refresher manual of core principles for practicing civil engineers - senior and junior - and by engineering geologists.
The author, John Atkinson, is Emeritus Professor of Soil Mechanics at City University, London, and has written a number of textbooks including The Mechanics of Soils and Foundations, now in its second edition and also published by Taylor & Francis.


CEN Regulations for Tunnelling Machinery

CEN Regulation Working Groups
Publisher: CEN European Committee for Standardization
Order each on the CEN web pages

EN 16191:2014
Tunnelling machinery - Safety requirements
Date of Availability: 21 May 2014

EN 12111:2014
Tunnelling machines - Roadheaders and continuous miners - Safety requirements
Date of Availability: 7 May 2014

EN 12110:2014
Tunnelling machines - Air locks - Safety requirements
Date of Availability: 21 May 2014
New and revised CEN Regulations relating to the use of machinery designed for the excavations of tunnels, shafts and other underground structures, including TBMs, roadheaders, and air locks, have been published and have come into effect across the countries of the European Union. As of their date of publication, the regulations of each EN Standard must be applied to new tunnelling projects using the stated types of machinery. The Standards do not apply to tunnelling machinery manufactured before the date of publication.
Applicable to tunnelling machinery as defined in Clause 3 and used for the construction of tunnels, shafts and other underground excavations. It deals with all significant hazards, hazardous situations and events relevant to such machinery when they are used as intended and under the conditions of misuse which are reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer (see Clause 4). The Standard covers monitoring for hazardous atmospheres within the confines of the tunnelling machinery.
A Standard that deals with all significant hazards, hazardous situations and events relevant to roadheaders and continuous miners as defined in Clause 3 when they are used as intended and under conditions of misuse which are reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer (see Clause 4). Excavators are out of the scope of this standard and are covered by EN 474 1:2006+A4:2013 and EN 474 5:2006+A3:2013. The Standard covers incorporation of monitoring devices for hazardous atmospheres. For the application in potentially explosive atmospheres see EN 1710:2005+A1:2008.
Applies to the design, construction, equipping, marking and testing of air locks as defined in 3.3 including pressure bulkheads as defined in 3.4, which are to be used in tunnelling work. An oxygen breathing system used to provide the breathing supply necessary to conduct a safe decompression is also covered by this Standard. Air locks can be connected to tunnelling machinery. This Standard can help the design of air locks and bulkheads in other compressed air work in construction. It deals with all significant hazards, hazardous situations and events relevant to such machinery when they are used as intended and under conditions of misuse which are reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer (see Clause 4).


Advanced Geotechnical Engineering

Soil-Structure Interaction using
Computer and Material Models
Pages: 638
Illustrations: 495
Authors: Chandrakant S. Desai
University of Arizona, Tucson, USA
Musharraf Zaman
University of Oklahoma, Norman, USA
Publisher: CRC Press/Taylor and Francis
Boca Raton, Florida, USA
Order online
A textbook that covers computer and analytical methods for considering a number of geotechnical problems associated with the soil-structure interaction. Its scope is considered distinctive with details of theory, computer procedures and codes, constitutive models, and applications toward analysis and design for a wide range of problems.
The book provides readers with a comprehensive treatment of computer methods and constitutive models that they can use for teaching, research, and solving a wide range of practical problems in geotechnical and structural engineering and geomechanics. It emphasizes material behavior (constitutive modeling) of geomaterials and interfaces/joints that are vital for realistic solutions of many geotechnical and structural problems. It discusses factors such as in-situ conditions, elastic, plastic and creep deformations, stress path, volume change, presence of fluids (water), non-homogeneities, inherent and induced discontinuities leading to softening, failure and liquefaction, and different types of loading such as static, cyclic, and dynamic.
Key Features
  • Examines the limitations of conventional solutions used in solving geotechnical problems pertaining to beams, piles, footings, dams, tunnels, anchors, reinforced earth structures, flow and seepage, and earthquake analysis;
  • Presents the developments in numerical modeling techniques and tools such as finite element and finite difference methods, and their applications for solving geotechnical problems in an easily understood manner;
  • Includes conventional and advanced developments in constitutive modeling for geologic materials, interfaces and joints, and determination of material parameters from standard laboratory tests;
  • Explains the influence of interactions between structures and soils/rocks, effects of nonlinearity, and material models on the behavior of soil-structure interaction problems;
  • Details the software used in solving examples throughout the book; and
  • Offers a wide range of challenging problems that can benefit a broad range of readers including upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, researchers, faculty, and practicing engineers.


Title: Handbook of Tunnel
Engineering Vol I and Vol II

Authors: Maidl, Bernhard; Thewes, Markus; Maidl, Ulrich
Date of Publication:
Vol I October 2013
Vol II January 2014

Vol I - Structures and Methods
ISBN: 978-3-433-03048-6
482 pages, 473 figures, 58 tables Hardcover
Price: €89, £75, $120

Vol II - Basics and Additional Services for Design and Construction
ISBN: 978-3-433-03049-3
458 pages, 261 figures, 79 tables Hardcover
Price: €89, £75, $120

SET: Vol I and Vol II
ISBN: 978-3-433-03078-3
Price: €149, £125, $205

Buy on-line
Tunnel engineering is one of the oldest, most interesting but also challenging engineering disciplines and demands not only theoretical knowledge but also practical experience in geology, geomechanics, structural design, concrete construction, machine technology, construction process technology and construction management. The two-volume Handbuch des Tunnel- und Stollenbaushas been the standard reference for German-speaking tunnellers in theory and practice for 30 years. The new English edition is based on a revised and adapted version of the third German edition and reflects the latest state of knowledge. The book is published in two volumes, with the first being devoted to more practical themes of construction and construction process in drill+blast and mechanised tunnelling. Microtunnelling and ventilation are also dealt with. The second volume covers both theoretical themes like design basics, geological engineering, structural design of tunnels and monitoring instrumentation, and also the practical side of work on the construction site such as dewatering, waterproofing and scheduling as well as questions of tendering, award and contracts, data management and process controlling. All chapters of both volumes include practical examples.
Vol I - Structures and Methods
1 Introduction ; 2 Support methods ; 3 The classic methods and their further development ; 4 Shotcrete tunnelling ; 5 Drill+blast tunnelling ; 6 Mechanised tunnelling ; 7 The drilling of small sections ; 8 Ventilation during the construction phase
Sample chapter:
Vol II - Basics and Additional Services for Design and Construction
1 General ; 2 Engineering geology aspects for design and classification ; 3 Structural design verifications, structural analysis of tunnels ; 4 Measurements for monitoring, probing and recording evidence ; 5 Dewatering, waterproofing and drainage ; 6 New measurement and control technology in tunnelling ; 7 Special features of scheduling tunnel works ; 8 Safety and safety planning ; 9 Special features in tendering, award and contract ; 10 Process controlling and data management ; 11 DAUB recommendations for the selection of tunnelling machines ; Appendices
Sample chapter:
Author information
Prof. em. Dr.-Ing.Dr. h. c. mult. Bernhard Maidl is the former Chair of Construction Technology, Tunnelling and Construction Management at the Ruhr University, Bochum. Prof. Maidl is currently partner of MTC - MaidlTunnelconsultants GmbH & Co. KG, Munich and Duisburg.
Dr. Ulrich Maidl is the managing director of MTC - MaidlTunnelconsultants GmbH & Co. KG, Munich and Duisburg as well as an officially appointed and sworn expert in tunnelling and microtunnelling.
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Markus Thewes holds the Chair of Tunneling and Construction Management at the Ruhr University, Bochum and is active in national and international associations.


Title: The Contractors
ISBN: 9780727758309
Pages: 320
Format: Hardbound
Date of Publication: Dec 2013
Price: £35.00

Title: The Civil Engineers
ISBN: 9780727741431
Pages: 352
Format: Hardbound
Date of Publication: June 2013
Price: £39.95

Buy both as a set: £64.95

Hugh Ferguson BSc(Eng) CEng FICE MCIHT and Mike Chrimes MBE BA MLS MCLIP
Language: English
Publisher: ICE Publishing
Review copies on display in the ICE Library
Order on-line from the ICE Bookshop
Two full-colour, hard-covered books chart the challenges and adventures faced by British civil engineers and construction contractors from the great engineering advances of Victorian times, as builders of canals in the late-18th Century to present day construction of infrastructure from roads and railways, sea works and flood defences, water supply and irrigation, urban drainage and sewerage, gas works and power stations and the Channel Tunnel and its Rail Link into London of the late 20th and early 21st Centuries.
Extraordinarily ambitious and largely unrecognised British citizens built infrastructure around the world, individuals took considerable risks, many failed in the process but others thrived to become powerful industrialists of their day.
Compiled as the first history of the topics, publications include profiles of many of the key figures and organisations in the industry through the ages, from the towering Victorian engineers and contractors whose business was their personal affair, through the 20th Century which saw the rise of the corporate engineer and contractor, specialist sub-consultants and sub-contractors and the blurring of the distinction between consulting engineers and contractors, to the larger firms of recent years that become larger through merger and acquisition.
The Contractors and The Civil Engineers a compelling read for those working in the industry. Readers will experience the boom of the Victorian era, to the reality of working at home and abroad, the difficulties and opportunities brought by wars, the equipment used and the specialists; designers and contractors of today, all fully illustrated in colour and with historic material from the ICE and the firms themselves.


Title: Norwegian Hydropower Tunnelling II
ISBN: 978-82-92641-28-6
Pages: 132
Authors: Various
Date of Publication: June 2013
Language: English
Publisher: Norwegian Tunnelling Society
Price and availability:
Hard copies available on request
Free download from Norwegian Tunnelling Society (NFF)
Norwegian Hydropower Tunnelling II is part of the English language series published by the Norwegian Tunnelling Society (NFF).
The aim is to share with international colleagues information on rock technology, in this publication with specific reference to the latest world-leading experience in tunnelling and underground works related to hydropower. This is the second title on hydropower tunnelling in the NFF English language back catalogue (which contains 22 titles in all). It is intended to update the 1985 version that contained 18 papers and has been read across all parts of the world over the last 28 years.
The updated 2013 edition contains 16 new papers on the following subjects:
• Lessons learned in hydroprojects in Norway and abroad
• Planning of pressurised headrace tunnel in Albania
• Design of unlined headrace tunnel in Tanzania
• Tunnels and shafts in small hydropower projects
• Lake tap design in West Greenland
• Norwegian high-pressure concrete plugs
• Artificial ground freezing to aid maintenance
• Waterproof underground caverns
• Raise drilling of shafts and tunnels
• Directional controlled drilling of shafts
• Small hydropower in Norway
• Underground construction under high rock stress
• Stability evaluations of a Himalayan underground powerhouse
• Norwegian hydropower technology applied in Vietnam
• Collapse and burst debris flood at Svandalsflona pressure
Norway is a world leader in hydropower. Its annual production is in the order of 140-150 TWh, which accounts for 95-96% of all electricity produced for a population of 5 million and is one of the highest (if not the highest) consumption rates per person in the world. During the last 50-60 years practically all hydropower stations have been located underground; more than 200 in total, which represents about a quarter of all underground power stations in the world. A total of 4,000km of tunnels have been excavated for Norwegian hydropower projects, the majority by drill+blast but also approximately 200km by TBM.
Norwegian engineers have been involved in hydropower projects in a number of countries and have learned important lessons in an international market. Some of this is included in the papers presented in this publication.


Title: BS-6164:2011
Code of practice for health and safety in tunnelling in the construction industry
Edition: 2011 Revised edition
Pages: 168
Authors: Committee chaired by Dr D. Lamont
Date of Publication: 31 July 2011
Publisher: British Standards Institution Group
Price: £123 for BSI members; £246 non-members
Order online at the BSI Book Shop
Revised edition of the BS 6164 Code of practice for health and safety in tunnelling in the construction industry is published and available for online purchase from the British Standards Institution.
First drafted in 1982 as a 56-page document, BS-6164 was revised extensively in 1991 and again in 2001. The newly published version, now more than 150 pages long, provides comprehensive guidance on health and safety issues arising from tunnel and shaft construction and tunnel maintenance, renovation and repair. In addition to a general update and a revised bibliography, the clauses dealing with excavation and support have been extensively rewritten as has the clause dealing with shafts. A new clause addresses the provision of refuge chambers in tunnels for use by workers in the event of an emergency during tunnel construction.
Both the Joint Code of Practice on Risk Management in Tunnel Works in the UK by the British Tunnelling Society and the Association of British Insurers (BTS/ABI), and the internationally applicable version published by the International Tunnel Insurance Group, make reference to BS-6164. These documents now need to be updated and make reference to the new BS-6164:2011 edition.
BTS/ABI - Joint Code of Practice for Risk Management of Tunnel Works in the UK


Title: The Austrian Practice of NATM Tunnelling Contracts
Edition: 2011
Pages: 23
Author: Committee of the Austrian Society of Geomechanics
Date of Publication: 2011
Publisher: Austrian Society of Geomechanics, Austrian Tunnelling Society
Price: €15 including postage
To order: Contact the Austrian Society for Geomechanics (ÖGG)
Tel: +43 (0)662 875519
Written in English, this comprehensive best practice guide covers all aspects of NATM contracting from tendering and estimating, to construction procedures and payment schedules. Starting from acknowledgement that adaptability is the primary strength of NATM, the guideline complies with the Austrian Standard ÖNORM B2203-1 and is based on six basic principles, that:
• ground risk (properties and behaviour) is borne by the owner (risk allocation rather than risk sharing);
• the contract provides unit prices for all items anticipated by the tender design;
• bill of quantities and payment models are formulated so that adjustments can be made without variation orders;
• the contract provides for decision-making at the tunnel face with mutual agreement between owner and contractor; and that
• a mediator's advice can be sought in case of disagreements or disputes.
Examples of excavation sequences and support types are provided together with calculations for excavation costs/m3; rates/working day; and matrix illustrations for calculating excavation time and costs.
At €15, the guideline is an investment in deeper understanding of NATM and the contracts written to administer its application.


Title: Gautrain - From dreams to reality
Price: R650 (US$75) plus postage
Date of publication: October 2012
To order: Directly through the website or ring +27 11 786 1085
South Africa's Gautrain project, linking Johannesburg with Pretoria, is the subject of a new interactive collector's edition book. It tells the story of the Gautrain's project history, from its inception to the opening of the final leg of the rail system on 2 August 2011.
Featuring never-before-seen pictures of the project's development, the book showcases and documents the history and progress of Africa's biggest public-private partnership.
Unlike a normal history book, the Gautrain book reads as a timeline rather than a detailed, in-depth account of the R26 billion project. Its interactive nature takes the reader through a process of folded letters, pull-outs and inserts, providing comprehensive detail about landmark aspects of the project.
Each page is beautifully crafted and designed on Curious Metallic Ice Gold paper and is encased in a gold sleeve. The book took a year to design and has so far notched up three prestigious awards. Also included with the book is a DVD.
The airport link section of the network, from the O. R. Tambo International Airport to the underground station at Sandton in Johannesburg, opened in June 2010, ahead of South Africa's hosting of the 2010 World Cup soccer tournament through June and July. The Rosebank-Pretoria section opened in August 2011 and the last section, the remainder of the underground section from Rosebank to the underground Park Station in central Johannesburg, opened in June 2012 after water ingress issues into the running tunnels were rectified.
Gautrain begins airport link services - TunnelTalk, June 2010


Title: Sprayed Concrete Lined Tunnels
Author: Alun Thomas
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Date: October 2008
Hb: 978-0-415-36864-3
Price: £65.00 GBP
eBook: 978-0-415-02899-5
Practicing engineers on site, in the design office, or in client organizations will find an introduction to the design and construction of sprayed concrete lined (SCL) tunnels. The complex bahaviour of the early age sprayed concrete requires careful management. The book covers all aspects of SCL tunnelling - from the constituents of sprayed concrete to detailed design and management during construction. Although there is a close inter dependence between all the facet sof sprayed concrete, few engineers have the right breadth of experience and expertise, and this needs to be transferred to the wider engineering community urgently.


Title: Austrian Practice of Conventional Tunnelling
Pages: 65
Author: Committee of the Austrian Society of Geomechanics and Austrian Tunnelling Society
Date of Publication: 2008
Publisher: Austrian Society of Geomechanics
Price: €50 including postage
To order: Contact the Austrian Society for Geomechanics (ÖGG)
Tel: +43 (0)662 875519
An indepth introduction to the Austrian approach to conventional tunnelling as embodied in its NATM excavation and contracting method. Published in English, the book is required reading for all undergraduates of civil engineering at the Leoban Technical University in Austria and provides an easily understood document for civil engineers the world over who find themselves assigned, perhaps for the first time, to an SCL/SME/NATM or conventional or TBM tunnelling project that requires support based on the elements of the NATM process.


Title: 100th Anniversary of the life of Leopold Müller
Pages: +50 with a CD of published papers and texts
Author: Professor Robert Galler, Leoben Technical University, Austria
Date of Publication: 2011
Publisher: Austrian Society of Geomechanics
Price: €25 including postage
To order: Contact the Austrian Society for Geomechanics (ÖGG)
Tel: +43 (0)662 875519
A tribute in the 100th anniversary of the birth of Leopold Müller who went on to be one of the world's most renowned engineers of rock mechanics and founder and first President of the International Society of Rock Mechanics (IRSM), a body that recorded a membership of more than 6,300 members and 47 National Groups in 2011. Together with Ladislaus von Rabcewicz and Franz Pacher, Müller is recognized as a principal exponent and developer of the NATM or New Austrian Tunnelling Method between 1957 and 1965. A prolific writer and presenter of lectures, the book concentrates on Müller private letters and writings with an archive of his papers and technical books published on the accompanying CD. Müller was central to the circles of NATM development and its expansion through out the world. He died in 1988 and remained actively engaged as an expert until late in life. Müller is honoured every four years with an IRSM award presented in recognition of distinguished contributions to the profession of rock mechanics and rock engineering. Published in German, the book is a journey through one of the most influential times in the field of rock engineering, tunnelling and underground space excavation and an insight into the life and work of one of the key individuals of that development.


Title: FIDIC Contracts:
Law and Practice

Authors: Ellis Baker, Ben Mellors, Scott Chalmers and Anthony Lavers
Year of Publication:
First Edition 2009
Publisher: Informa
ISBN: Hardback 978-1-84311-628-8
Price: £290.00
FIDIC Contracts: Law and Practice is the only book to date that provides a detailed analysis of the whole suite of contracts published by the Fédération Internationale des Ingénieurs-Conseils (FIDIC), including the new Gold Book for Design, Build and Operate Projects.
The book provides legal commentary and detailed analysis of the clauses of each of the different forms, with relevant case law and includes a comprehensive chapter dedicated to dispute resolution covering dispute boards, amicable settlement and arbitration. The FIDIC suite of contracts is also explained in relation to other organisations, such as the World Bank and the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) who are closely involved with their use.
The book opens with a general discussion of FIDIC as an institution and the background to the contract forms; chapter two considers the FIDIC forms and other forms published by FIDIC and the structure of a FIDIC Contract; chapters three, four and five are concerned with the parties' obligations in relation to what and how the works are to be constructed (and in the Gold Book, operated), their payment obligations and their obligations as to time; chapter six deals with the administration of the contract, and in particular two central features of the FIDIC forms: the role of the third-party contract administrator (except in the Silver Book) and the administration of claims; chapter seven concerns the mechanisms found in the FIDIC forms for the allocation and management of specific risks; chapter eight collates and discusses the various remedies available to the parties; and the book concludes with chapter nine - the resolution of disputes under the FIDIC forms.


Tunnels: Inspection, assessment and maintenance
Authors: L. McKibbins, R. Elmer, K. Roberts
Year of Publication: 2010
Publisher: CIRIA
ISBN: 978-0-86017-671-8
Number of pages: 450
Price: £120.00 GBP
Guidance to infrastructure owners, consulting engineers, contractors and maintenance managers on the management, condition appraisal, maintenance and repair of the structural elements of existing infrastructure tunnels. The focus is primarily on older infrastructure and certain tunnel types. It is based on a detailed review of published literature as well as on the procedures of infrastructure owners', consultations with experts and practitioners within the field, and case studies that demonstrate good practice.


Title: Survey analysis of water and sewer rates in 50 largest USA cities
Year of Publication: 2010
Publisher: Black & Veatch
Number of pages: 18
Free PDF download attached
Black & Veatch has released the results of its sixth 50 Largest USA Cities Water and Wastewater Rate Survey, a valuable knowledge resource for water and wastewater utilities of the United States. The survey highlights customer charges for water and sewer service for residential, industrial and commercial customers.
A key finding of the survey is that water and wastewater bills for residential use across the country have increased at a steady rate since 2001, when Black & Veatch began producing the survey.
This trend correlates with findings from The 2009 Report Card for America's Infrastructure, published by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), showing approximately $2.2 trillion of investment is needed to improve vital infrastructure over the next five years. Overall, America's grade is a cumulative "D" as noted by the ASCE.
Black & Veatch's analysis cites five key issues that influence rates and sheds more detail around the value of water and wastewater services and the solutions needed to address these two areas of vital infrastructure:
Commodity price increases. Primarily in electricity, chemicals and natural gas costs. A leading contributor to operating and maintenance costs of water and wastewater facilities - highlighting the important inter-relationship or nexus of water and energy.
Lower consumption and high fixed cost. In general, demand or a consumer's usage is declining while many utility costs, such as debt service, are fixed. Since most pricing structures include volume-based charges, revenues are declining while costs are not.
Benefits. Pension obligations and health care benefits are prompting an increase in labor costs.
Influence of wastewater legal action. Significant capital programs are being implemented in most major cities to comply with legal; action related to wastewater system performance.
Aging infrastructure. Updating and replacing aging infrastructure are significant costs for most water and sewer utilities, as noted in a report by the ASCE.
• Analysis of the 2010 survey results indicates the average annual increase in typical residential water bills is approximately 5.3% from 2001 through 2009, while the increase in typical residential sewer bills is approximately 5.5%.
The ASCE 2009 Report Card for America's Infrastructure
ASCE Report into the cost of replacing aging infrastructure


Title: 544.5R-10: Report on the Physical Properties and Durability of Fiber-Reinforced Concrete
Authors: ACI Committee 544
Year of Publication: 2010
Number of Pages: 31
Nonmember Price: US$62.50
ACI Member Price: US$38.00
Order Code: 544510
A report by the American Concrete Institute (ACI) that examines the physical properties and durability of fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) and makes viable performance-based specification of concrete materials using fibers. The document provides a historical basis and an overview of the current knowledge of FRC materials for tailoring new, sustainable, and durable concrete mixtures and evaluates the various physical, short-term, and long-term benefits that fiber reinforcement imparts to the concrete mixture. A variety of test methods, conditions, and properties are reported and listed in addition to the wide variety of the choices available in formulating matrix systems.
The document is divided into three sections and discusses the physical properties of FRC in terms of electrical, magnetic, and thermal properties; the rheological properties that affect fiber dispersion and distribution, using both empirical and quantitative rheology; mechanisms of creep and shrinkage and the role of various fiber types in affecting both plastic shrinkage cracking and restrained shrinkage cracking; the durability of concrete as affected by the addition of fibers under freezing and thawing conditions, corrosion resistance, and scaling; the durability of FRC systems to the highly alkaline cementitious microstructure; the durability of alkali-resistant glass and cellulose fibers using long-term accelerated aging results; the bundle effect and degradation and embrittlement due to alkali attack; recent advances for modeling and design of materials with aging characteristics; and the use of FRC materials under aggressive environments, extreme temperatures, and fire. The final sections list a series of applications where the use of FRC has resulted in beneficial durability considerations.
Available in hard copy or electronic PDF download format.


Title: Specification for Tunnelling, 3rd Edition
Authors: British Tunnelling Society Working Group
Publisher: Thomas Telford Ltd
ISBN: 9780727734778

Publish Date: March 2010
Format: Paperbound
Number of Pages: 200
Price: £ 45.00
The British Tunnelling Society's Specification for Tunnelling has become the industry standard for writing tunnelling contracts and forms the basis of tunnelling specifications for projects throughout the world.
The specification has been revised in this third edition to reflect current industry best practice and to take account of the many advances that have occurred over the last decade. Coverage of sprayed concrete has been expanded in recognition of its increased usage around the world and there are new sections on spray applied waterproofing membranes and box jack tunnelling. All references to codes, standards and other design documents have comprehensively been updated.
Drafted by an expert editorial committee with a combined tunnelling experience of more than 250 years, the BTS Specification for Tunnelling, 3rd Edition will continue to be the de facto standard reference work for tunnelling in the UK and around of the world.
Chapters include General requirements; Materials; Methods; Ground stabilisation processes; and Working environment.


Title: Sandhogs
Author/Photographer: Gina LeVay
Introduction: Bonnie Yochelson
Foreword: Thomas Kelly
Publisher: powerHouse Books
Date: Book launch November 20, 2009
Die-cut hardcover, 10.25 x 12.25 inches, 120 pages, 80 four-color photographs
ISBN: 978-1-57687-523-0
Price: $US40.00
Celebrating the 800 Sandhogs working 800ft below the streets of Manhattan to construct the largest unified infrastructure project in New York City history: the 60-mile long City Water Tunnel No 3 that will supplement the two existing but aging water supply tunnels Excavation of the Tunnel No 3 system began in 1970. For about each mile tunneled, one Sandhog has lost his life in a mining related accident. Generations of Sandhogs have accepted this daunting 'man-a-mile' formula as part of the job, but few New Yorkers know about this mammoth excavation or the story of the Sandhogs themselves. In 2003, photographer Gina LeVay was granted rare access to photograph the 'hogs' in the tunnel and at off-site locations. The Sandhog Project is a multi-faceted work of photo, video, web, and installation art, which explores the figurative and literal overlay, and mutual dependency of the surface city and this underground world. With the Sandhogs book and accompanying exhibitions, LeVay introduces the public to this vibrant and intricate subculture, bringing their rich, extraordinary, subterranean imagery to the surface.Her award-winning work 'The Sandhog Project' was exhibited as a large-scale photo and video installation at New York's Grand Central Terminal in 2006.
Gina LeVay holds an MFA in Photo and Related Media from the School of Visual Arts. Bonnie Yochelson is an art historian specializing in photography and is Curator of Prints and Photographs at the Museum of the City of New York.Thomas Kelly, a former Sandhog, is the author of three novels: Payback (Knopf, 1997), The Rackets (Phoenix, 2004), and Empire Rising (Picador, 2006).
Available via powerhouse, and bookshops


Title: Deep Foundation: Compendium Methods and Equipment Volume II
Author: Liebherr-Werk Nenzing GmbH (ed.)
Publisher: Ernst & Sohn
Date: Summer 2009 - 336 pages
ISBN: English 978-3-433-02933-6
German 978-3-433-02932-9
Price: € 129
The application of the complex technologies used today of deep foundations and ground engineering demands are described with specialized knowledge and practical experience provided by one of the world's leading specialist firms. Volume II joins 'Volume I: Piling and Drilling Rigs' published in March 2008.
Order Volumes I and II for a package price of € 189


Title: Recommendations on Excavations EAB
Author: Deutsche Gesellschaft fürGeotechnik e.V. (ed.)
Publisher: Ernst & Sohn
Date: 2nd revised edition, 2008 - 284 pages
ISBN: English 978-3-433-01855-2
Price: € 69
The aim of the recommendations is to harmonize and further develop the methods by which excavations are prepared, calculated and carried out and as drawn up by a working group at the German Geotechnical Society (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geotechnik DGGT). They help to simplify analysis of excavation enclosures, to unify load approaches and analysis procedures, to guarantee the stability and serviceability of the excavation structure and its individual components, and to find out an economic design of the excavation structure. For this new edition, all recommendations have been reworked in accordance with EN 1997-1 (Eurocode 7) and DIN 1054-1. New recommendations on the use of the modulus of subgrade reaction method and the finite element method (FEM), as well as a new chapter on excavations in soft soils, have been added.


Title: Guidelines on thin spray-on liners for mining and tunnelling
Author: EFNARC
Publisher: EFNARC
Date: April 2008
Price: Free pdf download
Minimum standards of performance and methods of application for thin spray-on liners (TSLs) used for non-structural rock support and for sealing rock against gas and moisture transfer and weathering. As the end product is essentially a polymer filled with cement it retains many of the characteristics associated with polymer systems such as good flexibility, high tensile strength and high elongation at break. TSLs can be applied either before or after the primary support providing operators do not work under unsupported ground. A linear block support test has thus been developed which gives an indication of the load bearing capacity of the TSL in terms of the mass of the largest block that can be supported.


Title: Big, Bigger, Biggest
Producer: Windfall Films in association with National Geographic Channel
Broadcaster: UK TV, Channel 5
Date: July 2009
Price: Free on-line to UK viewers only at: Demand Five
Tunnelling kicks off the second season of a popular UK TV documentary celebrating major engineering achievements. 'Big, Bigger, Biggest', produced by Windfall Films in association with National Geographic Channel and broadcast by Channel 5 TV, selected Switzerland's Gotthard Baseline railway tunnel project as the current 'Biggest' tunnelling project in the world. While showcasing the advancements employed on the Gotthard Baseline project, the documentary charted the journey from extraordinary beginnings to modern processes, a journey that began with a lowly mollusc that inspired the Thames Tunnel and the engineer who made it possible.
It was the shipworm, a clam in fact that secretes a mucus to provide a hard lining around the hole it bores into ship's timbers, that inspired the design of Marc Brunel's tunnelling shield, each 10 inches of advance supported by the construction of brick-built support and lining. The great leap from Brunel's shield of 1825, for a tunnel of 370m, to the 57km long Gotthard Baseline Tunnel, is the use of shotcrete (yes, 'shotccrete", not 'sprayed concrete') as "the ultimate reincarnation" of the shipworm's natural self-supporting secretion.
Five further projects that embodied leaps in technology were highlighted on the vital road of advance from the Thames Tunnel to the Gotthard Baseline. These were described and illustrated by terrific graphics, great video footage, but unfortunately a disappointing commentary.
After his father's extraordinary Thames Tunnel shield of the 1820s, Leap 2 was nominated as a 2,940m long railway tunnel on the London-Bristol line that was designed and advanced by Isambard Kingdom Brunel in the 1830s. The Box Hill Tunnel was one of the first to use gun powder explosives to tunnel through hard rock. Today the Gotthard uses modern drill+blast techniques that include computer-controlled drilling jumbos and smooth-profile blasting.
Leap 3: The 1880s mechanical excavation of the Mersey Tunnel in Liverpool, UK using a Beaumont tunnelling machine as a safer and faster method than blasting through faulted rock under the river. From this ground-breaking machine, modern hard rock TBMs as 'the ultimate tunnelling tool" are boring their way through the Alps.
Leap 4: Early 1900s the 19,800m Simplon rail tunnel in Switzerland that introduced the parallel twin tube design with regular cross passages to provide sustainable ventilation for drill+blast excavation of long tunnel headings. Today "the mother of all aircons" is employed on the Gotthard and designed also to reduce ambient and rock temperatures of up to 35-40C..
Leap 5: the 1990s, the 50,600m Channel Tunnel between England and France and its high precision surveillance and laser guidance systems that ensured that TBM headings from both sides of the Channel actually met in the middle. Link to the Gotthard: guidance of the tunnel headings beneath up to 3,000m of Alp massive overburden and the techniques used to get through never before encountered geological conditions.
Leap 6: Safety in operation, highlighting the lengths to which tunnel engineers must go to prevent disasters like the Gotthard road tunnel of 2001 that killed 11 when two trucks crashed head on and exploded in a fireball. Link to Gotthard Baseline rail tunnel: construction of two massive underground emergency stations where passengers can evacuate to rescue trains and travel to the outside.
The final line of the programme was that the Gotthard Baseline Tunnel "is currently the biggest until someone builds an even bigger one."
The second programme in the series this week was the development to the world's biggest submarine. A link in the mind of some to the engineering employed to develop today's high pressure slurry and EPB soft ground TBMs that are being asked to withstand hydrostatic pressures of up to 15-17 bar. Not an obvious link for sure, but certainly another cause to celebrate the programme's promotion of civil and mechanical engineering to the wider general public. That is after all, where the engineers of tomorrow are watching TV on a weekday evening before bedtime.


Title: Communicating the Value of Water - The UK Water Industry's Challenge
Author: Dan McCarthy,
Black & Veatch, UK
Publisher: White paper of industry discussions
Date: July 2009
Price: Free pdf download
Dan McCarthy, President and CEO of the Black & Veatch global water business, shares insights into the new realities of water management, focusing on the water industry's need to change its customers' experience of water from one of price, to one of value, in order to ensure resources are used in a sustainable manner. Based on a water industry round-table discussion that considered some of the approaches the UK water industry, McCarthy argues that it is imperative worldwide "to educate customers so that they better understand the value of water, as well as their role in using water wisely today to preserve the potential benefits for future generations. Financial, social and environmental factors, as well as price, all need to be considered in order to instigate a change in consumer use of water." The paper considers the role of metering, misconceptions about the amount of available water, the difficulties of communicating with a socio-economically diverse customer base, and limited understanding of the services water companies provide. McCarthy has served the water industry for more than 30 years and has experience in the provision of engineering, consulting and construction services for the sector worldwide.


Title: Occupational Exposure to Nitrogen Monoxide in a Tunnel Environment - Best Practice Guide
Author: British Tunnelling Society (BTS) NO Working Group
Publisher: BTS
Date: April 2008
Price:Free pdf download
Recommendations that occupational exposure to Nitrogen Monoxide be reduced to 0.2ppm from previous standards as high as 25ppm as an 8-hour time weighted average (TWA), have a major impact on the tunnelling industry. A report by the British Tunnelling Society responds to these recommendations and presents a set of key recommendations specifically for the tunnelling industry.